The most important Literacy Terms of English Literature ♦(01)#Alliteration (অনুপ্রাস): ★The repetition of an initial consonant sound. The repetition can be put side by side. (একই ধ্বনি বা ধ্বনিগুচ্ছের পুনঃপুনঃ বিন্যাসকে alliteration বলে। অনুপ্রাস সাধারণত শব্দের প্রথমে, মাঝে ও শেষে থাকে।)
~Sleepy sun sank slowly over the sea. ~ Alone, alone, all, all alone Alone on a wide, wide sea. ~But a better butter makes a batter better. ♦(02):#Allegory ( রূপকধর্মী রচনা):
★A story or picture with two or more different meanings- a literal meaning and one or more symbolic meanings. (Allegory অর্থ হচ্ছে অন্য কিছু বুঝানো; যেখানে লেখক তার কোনো বিশেষ ভাব/তত্ত্বকে সরাসরি প্রকাশ না করে অন্যকোনো ঘটনা/চিত্র আড়ালে রেখে সমান্তরাল ভাবে ব্যঞ্জিত করে থাকেন।)
~ William Shakespeare এর ‘The Tempest ‘ নাটকে allegory’র অংশবিশেষ দেখা যায়। The Tempest- a fight between good and evil on a deserted island. ~ George Orwell- Animal Farm: The pigs stand for political figures from of the Russian Revolution.
এছাড়াও Edmund Spenser এর ‘The Faerie Queen ‘, John Bunyan এর ‘The Pilgrim’s Progress ‘, Nathaniel Hawthorne এর ‘The Scarlet Letter ‘ allegory রচনার জন্য অন্যতম।
♦(03)#Allusion (পরোক্ষ ইঙ্গিত) ★Allusion is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literacy or political significance. In short- a reference within a work to something famous outside it. (বিষয়ভেদে একই বস্তুর বিভিন্ন দৃষ্টিকোণের দর্শনে যে সৌন্দর্য সৃষ্টি হয় তাকে allusion বলে।)
~ “Don’t act like a Romeo in front of her.”- ‘Romeo’ is a reference to Shakespeare’s Romeo, a passionate lover of Juliet, in ‘ Romeo and Juliet’. ~ ” This rise in poverty will unlock the Pandora’s box of crimes.”- This is an allusion to one of Greek Mythology’s origin myth, ”Pandora’s box”.
~ “This place is like a Garden of Eden.”- This is a Biblical allusion to the ‘ garden of God’ in the Book of Genesis.
♦(04)#Anaphora ( অ্যানফোরা): ★The repetition of the same word/phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. Writers often repeat specially chosen words or phrases to emphasize a point/stress certain ideas for the reader.( একটি পূর্ণাঙ্গ বাক্যের শুরুতে একই শব্দের পুনরাবৃত্তিকে অ্যানফোরা বলে। লেখকরা প্রায়শই বিশেষ কিছু শব্দগুলোকে পাঠকের সুবিধার্থে বা নজরে আনার জন্য পুনঃ পুনঃ জোর দেয় যা অ্যানফোরা নামে পরিচিত।)
যেমনঃ ~ Every day, every night, in every way, I am getting better and better. ~My life is my purpose. My life is my goal. My life is my inspiration. ~I want my money right now, right here, all right? ♦(05)#Antithesis (পরস্পর বিরোধী শব্দাবলী ব্যবহার):
★The combination of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases. Antithesis, literal meaning opposite, is a rhetorical device in which two opposite ideas are put together in a sentence to achieve a contrasting effect. In short, antithesis is used to show the rhetorical contrast of opposing ideas and meanings through parallel arrangements of words, clauses, or sentences. (একটি পূর্ণ বাক্যে বিপরীতমুখী ধারণার সমন্বয়।)
যেমনঃ ~Man proposes, God disposes. ~ Love is an ideal thing, marriage is a real thing. ~Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
~Patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit. ~Money is the root of all evils, poverty is the fruit of all goodness.
~You are easy on the eyes, but hard on the heart.
~To err is human ; to forgive divine. (‘An Essay on Criticism ‘ by Alexander Pope) ~It was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness. (‘A Tale of Two Cities ‘ by Charles Dickens) ~It was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness. (‘A Tale of Two Cities ‘ by Charles Dickens)
~It was the Spring of hope, it was the Winter of despair. (‘A Tale of Two Cities ‘ by Charles Dickens) ~Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven. ( ‘Paradise Lost’ by John Milton)
♦(06)#Apostrophe (সম্বোধন অলঙ্কার): ★Apostrophe is a literary technique in which an abstract or inanimate object is addressed or spoken to as if it were absent. It is a figure of speech where in the speaker speaks directly to something non-human. In short, breaking off discourse to address a nonexistent character. (বক্তৃতা বিরতির উদ্দেশ্যে অস্তিত্বহীন সত্তা আবিষ্কার করা।)
যেমনঃ ~Oh! Lift me as wave, a leaf, a cloud! (P.B. Shelley) ~ Twinkle, twinkle, little star…( Jane Taylor) ~ Blow winds, blow!
~ Little Lamb, who made thee? ~ Oh! nature, thou art my goddess.
♦(07)#Aside (স্বগত/একপাশে): ★An Aside is a dramatic device in which a character speaks to the audience. By Convention the audience is to realize that the character’s speech is unheard by the other character on stage. It may be addressed to the audience expressly or represent an unspoken thought. An Aside is usually a brief comment, rather than a speech, such as a monologue or soliloquy. Actually, this denotes a brief comment made on stage to the audience, so that the other characters cannot hear. In short, when an actor on stage turns to and whispers to the audience in secret & the other characters do not ‘hear’ the Aside. ( যখন একজন অভিনয় শিল্পী মঞ্চে শ্রোতাদের দিকে দাঁড়িয়ে/একজনের সাথে গোপনে ফিসফিস করে এবং অন্যরা তা শুনতে পান না তখন তাকে Aside/ স্বগত বলে।)
~ Time, thou anticipatest my dread exploits. ( in ‘ Macbeth ‘ by William Shakespeare) ~ A little more than kin, and less than kind.( in ‘ Hamlet’ by William Shakespeare) ♦(08)#Soliloquy (স্বগতোক্তি):
★A Soliloquy is a device often used in drama when a character speaks to himself or herself, relating thoughts and feelings. It is a long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage. In short, a Soliloquy is presented by a single character to himself/herself as an expression of his/her inner thoughts to himself/herself. (স্বগতোক্তিতে একজন বক্তা/একটি চরিত্রের তার নিজস্ব চিন্তাভাবনা প্রদর্শিত হয়।)
যেমনঃ ~To be, or not to be that is the question. (Hamlet) ♦(09)#Blank_Verse (অমিত্রাক্ষর ছন্দ) : ★A Blank Verse is a poem with no rhyme but does have iambic pentameter. This means it consists of lines of five feet…In short, unrhymed poetry written in iambic pentameter [each line has five pairs of syllables]. (অমিত্রাক্ষর কাব্য বলতে মূলত পাঁচমাত্রার কাব্যকে বুঝায়।)
~But soft! What light through yonder window breaks? It is the East, and Juliet is the sun! (Romeo & Juliet by William Shakespeare) ~Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?( The Chief poetic from Shakespeare used was blank verse, or unrhymed iambic pentameter)
~Something there is that doesn’t love a wall. That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it, And spills the upper boulders in the sun; (Mending Wall by Robert Frost) ♦(10)#Ballad (লোকগাথা/গীত):
★A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. It is a song transmitted orally which tells a story. Ballads are narrative species of folk songs. The popular ballad is dramatic, condensed & impersonal. (গীতি কবিতার আদি রূপ হিসেবে বিচার করা হয় গাথা বা Ballad কে। ইতালীয় শব্দ Ballare থেকে Ballad শব্দের উৎপত্তি। Ballare অর্থ নৃত্য করা। অর্থাৎ কবিতার সঙ্গে নৃত্য ও নাটকীয়তার মিশ্রণে গাথার সৃষ্টি। প্রেম, ধর্ম, বীরত্ব, গ্রামীণ জীবনের প্রসঙ্গ প্রভৃতি পরিলক্ষিত হয়। এতে ব্যক্তি কিংবা সামষ্টিক জীবনের বেদনা করুণ কাহিনির প্রাধান্য থাকে।)
ইংরেজি সাহিত্যে Wiliam Wordsworth, Thomas Hardy, S.T. Coleridge, John Keats প্রমুখ কবি এ জাতীয় প্রচুর কবিতা লিখেছেন। ~ John Keats ‘s “La Belle Dame sans Merci” ~ Thomas Hardy’s “During Wind and Rain” ~ Edgar Allan Poe’s ” Annabel Lee” etc. ♦(11)#Couplet (দ্বিপদী শ্লোক): ★Two lines with rhyming ends. In short, a rhymed pair of lines. William Shakespeare often used a couplet to end a sonnet.
~ Shakespeare এর সুবিখ্যাত ‘Sonnet 18’ এর শেষ দুই লাইন দেখুনঃ ” So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this and this gives life to thee.” ~”Saints do not move, though grant for prayers sake Then move not while my prayer’s effect I take.”- Couplet of William Shakespeare ~ I was angry with my foe I told it not, my wrath did grow. ~Chocolate candy is sweet and yummy
It goes down smoothly in my tummy! ~Make that chill good and hot Cook it in a Texas pot. ♦(12)#Elegy (শোকগীতি): ★ A poem of serious refection, typically a lament for the dead. Elegy is a form of poetry natural to the reflective mind. As the poet will feel regret for the past or desire for the future, so sorrow and love became the principal themes of the elegy. Elegy presents every thing as lost and gone or absent and future. Elegy is a poem written in response to the death of a person. The speaker expresses grief and sorrow, then praise and admiration of the dead, and finally consolation and solace. ( elegy শব্দের মূল গ্রিক শব্দ elegeia এর অর্থ lament, বেদনার আর্তি। সময়ের বিবর্তনে elegy বলতে এখন কেবল শোক কবিতাকেই বুঝায়।)
যেমনঃ ~ A famous example of elegy is Thomas Gray’s ”Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard ” ~ Greek poet Bion’s ”Lament for Adonis’. ~ John Milton’s ” Lycidus” ~ P.B. Shelley’s ‘ Adonis ‘ ~ W.H. Auden’s ” In Memory of W.B. Yeats” etc. ~ If I cried out Who would hear me up there? Among the angelic orders And suppose one suddenly Took me to his heart I would shrivel.
♦(13)#Euphemism ( শ্রুতিকটু পদের পরিবর্তে কোমলতর পদের প্রয়োগ) :
★ The substitution of an inoffensive expression for one considered offensively explicit. A mild word/expression for one too harash when referring to something unpleasant. যেমনঃ ~ Our teacher is in the family way (pregnant). ~ He is always tired and emotional (drunk). ~ We do not hire mentally challenged (stupid) people. ~ He is a special child (disabled). ~ I succeed in finding out what does not work ( I do not fail). ~ John Donne in his poem ‘ the Flea’ employs euphemism. ~ William Shakespeare’s ‘Othello ‘ Iago tells Brabantio : ” I am one, Sir, that comes to tell you your daughter and the Moor are now making the beast with two backs. ” Here, the expression ‘ making the beast with two backs ‘ refers to the ‘act of having s’ex’.
~ George Orwell’s ‘Animal Farm’ – ” For the time being” he explains, ” It had been found necessary to make a readjustment of rations.” Here substituting the word ‘reduction ‘ with ‘readjustment ‘. ♦(14)#Hyperbole ( অতিশয়োক্তি): ★ An extravagant statement ; the use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect. A hyperbole is an extreme exaggeration used to make a point. It is an unreal exaggeration to emphasize the real situation. It is like the opposite of ‘understatement ‘. Hyperboles are comparisons, like similes and metaphors, but are extravagant and even ridiculous.
যেমনঃ ~ I’ve told you a million times. ~ I am so hungry I could eat a horse. ~ This car goes faster than the speed of light. ~ They ran like greased lightning. ~ He’s got ton’s of money. ~ He is older than the hills. ~ He is as skinny as a toothpick. ~ I have a million things to do. ~ I’m so hungry I could eat a horse! ~ She cried so long that she made a lake. ~ William Shakespeare noted in ‘ Hamlet’ – ” I loved Ophelia. Forty thousand brothers Couldn’t with all their quantity of love
Make up my sum. What wilt thou do for her?” ♦(15)#Irony ( বিদ্রুপ/ব্যাজস্তুতি): ★The use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. Differences in appearance and reality, or expectations and results, or meanings and intentions. ( নিন্দাচ্ছলে প্রশংসা এবং প্রশংসাচ্ছলে নিন্দা হলে ‘ Irony’ অলংকার হয়।)
~ The butter is as soft as a marble piece. ~ The name of Britain’s biggest dog was ‘ Tiny’. ~ Brutus is an honourable man. ~ William Shakespeare’s ‘Romeo and Juliet’: “Go ask his name: if he be married My grave is like to be my wedding bed.”
~ In the Greek drama ‘ King Lear’ written by Shakespeare: ” King Lear banished his youngest daughter Cordelia from his Kingdom ; but in the end, she became her only shelter. “ ~ In poem of S.T. Coleridge ‘ The Rime of the Ancient Mariner’ wrote: “Water, water, everywhere, And all the boards did shrink ;
Nor any drop to drink. ♦(16)#Litotes (অর্থালঙ্কার বিশেষ /এক জাতীয় অর্থালঙ্কার যাতে নঞর্থক শব্দের সাহায্যে তার বিপরীত সদর্থক ভাবটিকেই জোরালোভাবে প্রকাশ করা হয়)
★ A figure of speech consisting of an understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite.
যেমনঃ ~ They do not seem the happiest couple around. ~ The ice cream was not too bad. ~ New York is not an ordinary city.
~ William Shakespeare was not a bad playwright at all. ~ She is not unlike her mother. ~ A million dollars is not a little amount. ~ Your apartment is not unclean. #Md.Deluar Hossan Lecturer, Department of Political Science Demra College, Dhaka-1360
♦(17)#Limerick (মজাদার ছড়া) :
★It is a humorous verse of three long and two short lines rhyming aabba/aabbc.
যেমনঃ ~ The limerick’s an art form complex Whose contents run chiefly to s’ex; It’s famous for virgins And masculine urgin’s
And vulgar erotic effects. ♦(18)#Lyric (গীতি কবিতা): ★Lyric poetry is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the person. যেমনঃ ~ In ‘Dying ‘ by Emily Dickinson “I heard a fly buzz when I died;
The stillness round my form Was like the stillness in the air Between the heaves of storm.”
♦(19)#Metaphor (দৃষ্টান্ত/রূপকালঙ্কার): ★An implied comparison between two unlike things that actually have something important in common. A metaphor is a word or phrase that is used to make a comparison between two people, things, animals, or places. In short, an implicit comparison between two different things.
~ In “Son
net XVIII”, the phrase, ” eternal summer”, in the line, “But thy eternal summer shall not fade” is a metaphor that suggests “never-ending youthfulness “. ~ Here is another example: ” All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exists and their entrances, (Shakespeare: As You Like It, Act II, Scene VII) The “world ” has been compared to “a stage” to suggest short life on earth. “Entrances ” and “exits” are also metaphors which imply birth and death respectively. ~The “unweeded garden” in the following lines is another famous metaphor which the ethically came corrupted or morally polluted world.
“How weary ,stale, flat and unprofitable Seem to me all the uses of this world! Fie on’t! Oh fie, fie, ’tis an unweeded garden, That grows to seed;” (Shakespeare: Hamlet,Act I, Scene II) ~” Life’s but a walking shadow” ( Shakespeare: Macbeth) ~ “She’s all states, and all princes, I” (John Donne: The Sun Rising) ~ “If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? “ (P.B. Shelley: Ode to the West Wind) ~The snow is a white blanket. ~The hospital was a refrigerator. ~ The classroom was a zoo. ~ America is a melting pot. ~ Life is a roller coaster. ~ She is a peacock. ~ He is a shining star. ~ The alligator’s teeth are white daggers.
~ Time is money. ~ My teacher is a dragon. ~ She feels that life is a fashion show. ~ The world is a stage. ~ Kisses are the flowers of affection. ~ Jane’s ambitions are a house of cards. ~ Her long hair was a flowing golden river. ~ The computers at school are old dinosaurs. ~ Laughter is the music of the soul. ~ He is a night owl. ~ Maria is a chicken. ~ The wind was an angry witch. ~ Your brain is a computer. ~ Jamal was a pig at dinner. ~ You are my sunshine. ~ You are an angel. ~ The sun is a golden ball. ~ The clouds are balls of cotton. ~ The stars are sparkling diamonds. ~ He is a walking dictionary. ~ Donations for the popular charity were a Tsunami.
~ Necessity is the mother of invention. ~ My big brother is a couch potato. ~ The thunder was a mighty lion. ~ My pulse is a race car. ~ The moon is a white balloon. ~ The stormy ocean was a raging bull.m ~ He drowned in a sea of grief. ~ She is fishing in troubled waters. ~ Success is a bastard. ~ Failure i an orphan.
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